国立感染症研究所

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The topic of This Month Vol.37 No.7(No.437)

Mosquito-borne viral infections: Zika virus infection, Chikungunya fever and Dengue fever, 2011 to June 2016, Japan

(IASR 37: 119-120, July 2016)

All mosquito-borne infectious diseases are classified as category IV infectious diseases under the Infectious Diseases Control Law (Table 1).  This article focuses on Zika virus infection, Chikungunya fever and Dengue fever.  As these are associated with acute febrile illness and clinically similar in manifesting syndromes such as fever, rash, and arthralgia, and as there are many asymptomatic cases, differential diagnosis solely based on clinical information is difficult (see notification criteria for each disease described below).  In Japan, majority of the reported cases for these three diseases have been acquired abroad (i.e. imported cases), but an autochthonous dengue fever outbreak was confirmed in Japan in 2014 for the first time in nearly 70 years (IASR 36: 33-35, 2015).

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The topic of This Month Vol.37 No.8(No.438)

Acute hepatitis B, April 2006-December 2015

(IASR 37: 147-148, August 2016)

Acute hepatitis B is caused by infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) of Hepadnaviridae.  After an incubation period of approximately 3 months, the disease starts with general malaise, flu-like symptoms, anorexia, chills, and vomiting, often followed by brown urine or jaundice.  Infection among infants is usually symptomless but often lapses into a carrier state.  Infection among adults generally resolves within 1-2 months.  However, fulminant hepatitis occurs in 1% of adult cases and approximately 60-70% among them are fatal.  A proportion of infants and adult cases who are carriers can develop chronic hepatitis; adults with competent immunity rarely become carriers (see p. 157 of this issue).

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The topic of This Month Vol.37 No.9(No.439)

HIV/AIDS in Japan, 2015

(IASR 37: 167-168, September, 2016)

HIV/AIDS surveillance in Japan started in 1984.  It was conducted under the AIDS Prevention Law from 1989 to March 1999 and since April 1999, has been operating under the Infectious Diseases Control Law. Physicians who have made a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS are required to notify all such cases (see http://www.niid.go.jp/niid/images/iasr/34/403/de4031.pdf for the reporting criteria).  The data used in this article were derived from the annual report of the National AIDS Surveillance Committee for the year 2015 (released by the Tuberculosis and Infectious Diseases Control Division, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), http://api-net.jfap.or.jp/status/2015/15nenpo/15nenpo_menu.html).  HIV/AIDS cases are classified into two categories: as an “HIV case” if HIV infection was detected before clinical manifestation of AIDS, and as an “AIDS case” if the infection was detected after manifes-tation of AIDS symptoms*.

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The topic of This Month Vol.37 No.10(No.440)

Mumps (infectious parotitis) in Japan, as of September 2016

(IASR 37: 185-186, October, 2016)

Mumps is a common viral infection frequent among children.  The causative agent is mumps virus (MuV) belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Rubulavirus.  While there is only one serotype, there are 12 genotypes from A to N (E and M are lacking) based on the variation of the SH gene (IASR 34: 224-225, 2013).

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The topic of This Month Vol.37 No.11(No.441)

Influenza  2015/16 season, Japan

(IASR 37: 211-212, November, 2016)

The 2015/16 influenza season (from week 36 in September 2015 to week 35 in August 2016) was characterized by the return of A/H1pdm09 as the predominant strain after being relatively absent in the previous season.  Influenza virus B, consisting of both Yamagata and Victoria lineages, started increasing from week 2 of 2016.

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The topic of This Month Vol.37 No.12(No.442)

Amebiasis in Japan, week 1 of 2007-week 43 of 2016

(IASR 37: 239-240, December, 2016)

Amebiasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, transmitted through the fecal-oral route.  The parasite is released in the feces as cysts, which may contaminate drinking water or foods.  Once the cysts are ingested and reach the small intestine, they undergo excystation and become trophozoites.  Trophozoites migrate to the colon and cause mucosal ulcers in 5-10% of infected persons, resulting in “intestinal amebiasis”.  This condition is associated with dysenteric signs or symptoms, such as mucous and bloody stool, diarrhea, tenesmus (feeling of incomplete defecation) and abdominal pain.  Occasionally, the trophozoites migrate hematogenously further to the liver, lung, brain or skin and produce local abscesses resulting in “extraintestinal amebiasis”, which is clinically more serious.  The World Health Organization estimates that globally several tens of thousands of people die of amebiasis annually.

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The topic of This Month Vol.38 No.3(No.445)

Measles in Japan, 2016

(IASR Vol. 38 p45-47: March, 2017)

Measles is a highly transmissible acute systemic infectious disease caused by measles virus.  Its transmission mode is airborne, droplet or contact.  Main clinical manifestations are fever, rash and catarrh.  Approximately 40% of the patients require hospitalized treatment.  Complications such as pneumonia or encephalitis may lead to death.  In 2015, an estimated 134,200 people, mainly children in developing countries, died of measles [World Health Organization (WHO) fact sheet, November 2016, http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs286/en/].

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The topic of This Month Vol.38 No.4(No.446)

Foodborne helminthiases in Japan

(IASR Vol. 38 p69-70: April, 2017)

Raw fish dishes, such as sushi and sashimi, have played an important role in Japanese dietary culture, and, with this tradition, some Japanese also consume uncooked meat.  These practices, however, often cause protozoa (unicellular parasite) and helminth (multicellular parasite) infections.  In 1997, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare) issued a notice warning against foodborne parasitic diseases, and in 1999, “Anisakis spp.” was listed as an example of “other causes of food poisoning” in the reporting form of food poisoning events.  In 2012, when the Ordinance for Enforcement of Food Sanitation Act was amended, the “manual of food poisoning statistics” listed “Kudoa septempunctata”, “Sarcocystis fayeri”, “Anisakis and Pseudoterranova species” and “other parasites (e.g. lung fluke, spiruria type X larva, cestode)” as distinct food poisoning agents [December 28, 2012, MHLW, Dept.  Food Safety, Inspection/Safety Division notice 1228 (no.1)].  This article reviews foodborne helminthes other than Kudoa and Sarcocystis spp., which were published previously (IASR 33: 147-148, 2012, http://www.niid.go.jp/niid/en/iasr-vol33-e/2292-inx388-e.html) (Table in p. 70).

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The topic of This Month Vol.38 No.5(No.447)

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection, as of April 2017, Japan

(IASR Vol. 38 p87-88: May, 2017)

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection is a systemic infection of pathogenic E. coli that produces Verotoxin/Shiga toxin (VT/Stx) and/or possesses the VT encoding genes.  Main signs and symptoms are abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and bloody diarrhea.  Fever (~38°C) and/or vomiting are occasionally observed.  EHEC that produces VT can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) consisting of thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure.

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The topic of This Month Vol.38 No.6(No.448)

Scrub typhus and Japanese spotted fever in Japan 2007-2016

(IASR Vol. 38 p109-112: June, 2017)

Rickettsiosis in Japan is largely represented by two diseases, scrub typhus (tsutsugamushi disease) and Japanese spotted fever.  Their vectors are mites and ticks, respectively.  Fever, rash and eschar at the site of the bite form the diagnostic triads.  They are category IV infectious diseases that require reporting of all cases under the Infectious Diseases Control Law (criteria for notification: http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/images/iasr/38/448/de4481.pdf, http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/images/iasr/38/448/de4482.pdf).  Their differential diagnosis is difficult without laboratory diagnosis.

Copyright 1998 National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan

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